Index Distribution of Cauchy Random Matrices

Ricardo Marino 1 Satya N. Majumdar 1 Grégory Schehr 1 Pierpaolo Vivo 1

Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, Institute of Physics: Hybrid Open Access, 2014, 47, pp.055001

Using a Coulomb gas technique, we compute analytically the probability $\mathcal{P}_\beta^{(C)}(N_+,N)$ that a large $N\times N$ Cauchy random matrix has $N_+$ positive eigenvalues, where $N_+$ is called the index of the ensemble. We show that this probability scales for large $N$ as $\mathcal{P}_\beta^{(C)}(N_+,N)\approx \exp\left[-\beta N^2 \psi_C(N_+/N)\right]$, where $\beta$ is the Dyson index of the ensemble. The rate function $\psi_C(\kappa)$ is computed in terms of single integrals that are easily evaluated numerically and amenable to an asymptotic analysis. We find that the rate function, around its minimum at $\kappa=1/2$, has a quadratic behavior modulated by a logarithmic singularity. As a consequence, the variance of the index scales for large $N$ as $\mathrm{Var}(N_+)\sim \sigma_C\ln N$, where $\sigma_C=2/(\beta\pi^2)$ is twice as large as the corresponding prefactor in the Gaussian and Wishart cases. The analytical results are checked by numerical simulations and against an exact finite $N$ formula which, for $\beta=2$, can be derived using orthogonal polynomials.

  • 1. LPTMS - Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Modèles Statistiques