Loop expansion around the Bethe approximation through the $M$-layer construction

Ada Altieri 1, 2 Maria Chiara Angelini 3 Carlo Lucibello 4 Giorgio Parisi 5, 6, 7 Federico Ricci-Tersenghi 8, 6, 7 Tommaso Rizzo 9, 10

Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, IOP Science, 2017

For every physical model defined on a generic graph or factor graph, the Bethe $M$-layer construction allows building a different model for which the Bethe approximation is exact in the large $M$ limit and it coincides with the original model for $M=1$. The $1/M$ perturbative series is then expressed by a diagrammatic loop expansion in terms of so-called fat-diagrams. Our motivation is to study some important second-order phase transitions that do exist on the Bethe lattice but are either qualitatively different or absent in the corresponding fully connected case. In this case the standard approach based on a perturbative expansion around the naive mean field theory (essentially a fully connected model) fails. On physical grounds, we expect that when the construction is applied to a lattice in finite dimension there is a small region of the external parameters close to the Bethe critical point where strong deviations from mean-field behavior will be observed. In this region, the $1/M$ expansion for the corrections diverges and it can be the starting point for determining the correct non-mean-field critical exponents using renormalization group arguments. In the end, we will show that the critical series for the generic observable can be expressed as a sum of Feynman diagrams with the same numerical prefactors of field theories. However, the contribution of a given diagram is not evaluated associating Gaussian propagators to its lines as in field theories: one has to consider the graph as a portion of the original lattice, replacing the internal lines with appropriate one-dimensional chains, and attaching to the internal points the appropriate number of infinite-size Bethe trees to restore the correct local connectivity of the original model.

  • 1. Department of Physics [Roma La Sapienza]
  • 2. LPTMS - Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Modèles Statistiques
  • 3. Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma
  • 4. Polito - Politecnico di Torino [Torino]
  • 5. Dipartimento di Fisica
  • 6. S.Li.M. Lab - Soft and Living Matter Laboratory
  • 7. Sapienza Universit'a di Roma and Sezione INFN
  • 8. Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM
  • 9. Dipartimento di Fisica [Roma La Sapienza]
  • 10. ISC - Institute for Complex Systems, CNR-Italy