Message Passing for Optimization and Control of Power Grid: Model of Distribution System with Redundancy

Lenka Zdeborová 1, Aurélien Decelle 2, Michael Chertkov 3

Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 80 (2009) 046112

We use a power grid model with $M$ generators and $N$ consumption units to optimize the grid and its control. Each consumer demand is drawn from a predefined finite-size-support distribution, thus simulating the instantaneous load fluctuations. Each generator has a maximum power capability. A generator is not overloaded if the sum of the loads of consumers connected to a generator does not exceed its maximum production. In the standard grid each consumer is connected only to its designated generator, while we consider a more general organization of the grid allowing each consumer to select one generator depending on the load from a pre-defined consumer-dependent and sufficiently small set of generators which can all serve the load. The model grid is interconnected in a graph with loops, drawn from an ensemble of random bipartite graphs, while each allowed configuration of loaded links represent a set of graph covering trees. Losses, the reactive character of the grid and the transmission-level connections between generators (and many other details relevant to realistic power grid) are ignored in this proof-of-principles study. We focus on the asymptotic limit and we show that the interconnects allow significant expansion of the parameter domains for which the probability of a generator overload is asymptotically zero. Our construction explores the formal relation between the problem of grid optimization and the modern theory of sparse graphical models. We also design heuristic algorithms that achieve the asymptotically optimal selection of loaded links. We conclude discussing the ability of this approach to include other effects, such as a more realistic modeling of the power grid and related optimization and control algorithms.

  • 1. Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division,
    Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division
  • 2. Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Modèles Statistiques (LPTMS),
    CNRS : UMR8626 – Université Paris XI - Paris Sud
  • 3. Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division,
    Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division