Native ultrametricity of sparse random ensembles

V. Avetisov 1, 2 P. L. Krapivsky 3 S. Nechaev 4, 5

Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, IOP Publishing, 2016, 49, pp.035101

We investigate the eigenvalue density in ensembles of large sparse Bernoulli random matrices. We demonstrate that the fraction of linear subgraphs just below the percolation threshold is about 95\% of all finite subgraphs, and the distribution of linear chains is purely exponential. We analyze in detail the spectral density of ensembles of linear subgraphs, discuss its ultrametric nature and show that near the spectrum boundary, the tail of the spectral density exhibits a Lifshitz singularity typical for Anderson localization. We also discuss an intriguing connection of the spectral density to the Dedekind $\eta$-function. We conjecture that ultrametricity is inherit to complex systems with extremal sparse statistics and argue that a number-theoretic ultrametricity emerges in any rare-event statistics.

  • 1. Department of Applied Mathematics
  • 2. The Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics
  • 3. Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  • 4. P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute [Moscow]
  • 5. LPTMS - Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Modèles Statistiques