The Index Distribution of Gaussian Random Matrices

Satya N. Majumdar 1, Celine Nadal 1, Antonello Scardicchio 2, Pierpaolo Vivo 2

Physical Review Letters 103 (2009) 220603

We compute analytically, for large N, the probability distribution of the number of positive eigenvalues (the index N_{+}) of a random NxN matrix belonging to Gaussian orthogonal (\beta=1), unitary (\beta=2) or symplectic (\beta=4) ensembles. The distribution of the fraction of positive eigenvalues c=N_{+}/N scales, for large N, as Prob(c,N)\simeq\exp[-\beta N^2 \Phi(c)] where the rate function \Phi(c), symmetric around c=1/2 and universal (independent of $\beta$), is calculated exactly. The distribution has non-Gaussian tails, but even near its peak at c=1/2 it is not strictly Gaussian due to an unusual logarithmic singularity in the rate function.

  • 1. Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Modèles Statistiques (LPTMS),
    CNRS : UMR8626 – Université Paris XI - Paris Sud
  • 2. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,
    ICTP Trieste